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TEMPEST INC.

(703) "TEMPEST" - 703.836.7378

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tempest-inc.com


*** OUR 32nd YEAR IN BUSINESS: 1985 - 2017 ***

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Updated: FEBRUARY 20, 2017

We build electromagnetically hardened (HEMP) and TEMPEST secure communication devices that meet the most stringent US Department of Defense (DoD) and NATO requirements. We have done this successfully for over twenty years.

PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS AND ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY

How to make RF computations quickly and accurately without a calculator.

THE SHIELDED ENCLOSURE HANDBOOK

The definitive guide for the buyer, builder, tester and user of electromagnetically shielded enclosures.

ELECTROMAGNETIC COMPATIBILITY SOFTWARE

* FCC and European Community (CE MARK) Electromagnetic Compatibility Testing, Acoustics.
* High Energy Electromagnetic Pulse ( HEMP ) hardening.
* Electromagnetic Compatibility TEST CAPABILITY TO 300 GIGAHERTZ
* FCC Listed Electromagnetic Compatibility .testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . Facility
* iNARTE Certified
* Our Acoustic testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . Capability meets all of the stringent requirements of MIL-STD-1474D

* Software verification testing.

TEMPEST Security / EMSEC

TEMPEST Security and Electromagnetic Compatibility Products.

TEMPEST Security and Electromagnetic Compatibility Services.

TEMPEST Security and Electromagnetic Compatibility Courses.

TEMPEST Security and Electromagnetic Compatibility Test Facilities.

Model NA-200/2G ANTENNA, 200 MHz - 2 GHz: compact, rugged, and ideal for on-site Electromagnetic Compatibility testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems .

TEMPEST INC. offers TEMPEST security / EMSEC, Protection against HIGH ALTITUDE ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE ( HEMP ) attacks and HIGH POWER MICROWAVE ( HPM ) attacks, Electromagnetic Compatibility testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . and design services in accordance with current US Department of Defense (DoD) Military, FCC, Australian & European Community Requirements.

Please note: Our TEMPEST security engineering services are only available to the US Government and its contractors. others require US Government approval in advance. Model NA-200/2G ANTENNA, 200 MHz - 2 GHz: compact, rugged, and ideal for on-site Electromagnetic Compatibility testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems .

We offer:

1. Fast, effective service by U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) Certified TEMPEST Professionals holding the highest level of certification,
Certified Electromagnetic Compatibility Engineers, and
Certified Electrostatic Discharge Control Engineers.

2. Cursory TEMPEST security and Electromagnetic Compatibility testing, with proven expertise and facilities to find and correct deficiencies quickly.

3. Effective TEMPEST security and Electromagnetic Compatibility design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . modifications when needed.

4. Certification testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . in accordance with all U.S. TEMPEST security standards, US Department of Defense (DoD) Military Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) Standards, and the civilian EMC standards of:
The US Federal Communications Commission ( FCC ), and
European Community Directive 89/336/EEC ( CE Mark ),
The Australian Communications and Media Authority ( ACA / ACMA ) " C-tick mark."

5. Cooperative arrangements with European Electromagnetic Compatibility Laboratories ("Competent Bodies")

6. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) listed Electromagnetic Compatibility testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . facilities.

7. Shielding effectiveness testing.

8. Electromagnetically shielded enclosures.

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| TEMPEST Security Engineering | TEMPEST Security design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . and Manufacturing |
| TEMPEST Security Testing | TEMPEST Security Training |
Our TEMPEST security engineering services are only available to the US Government and its contractors. others require US Government approval in advance.

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Mission Statement.

Taking the risk out of TEMPEST security. tm. since 1985.

TEMPEST security and electromagnetic compatibility deal with electromagnetic fields, things that we cannot see, hear, feel, taste or smell. Lacking an intuitive reality check, TEMPEST security and electromagnetic compatibility engineers assume an extra degree of risk that does not exist when, for example, erecting a house or assembling an automobile.

A skeptical reader might ask why TEMPEST security and electromagnetic compatibility are so unusual, when ordinary radio communications also deal with signals that you cannot sense naturally. One important difference is that in the field of TEMPEST security, as well as in electromagnetic compatibility the phenomena that you are trying to control occur unintentionally.

If two amateur radio operators try to make contact with each other halfway around the world, they enjoy certain advantages. Each knows that the other's signal is being produced on purpose, and that it must meet certain rules regarding its frequency, power, and other characteristics. TEMPEST security and electromagnetic compatibility engineers don't have these advantages. This is why their risks are greater.

The Industrial Sides of TEMPEST security and electromagnetic compatibility.

The extra risks in TEMPEST security and electromagnetic compatibility are not borne solely by the engineers that work in these fields. To see this, let's examine a business from top to bottom:

Overview.
When someone uses the term " TEMPEST products " most people think about TEMPEST computers, including TEMPEST desktops, TEMPEST notebooks, TEMPEST laptops and TEMPEST all-in-ones, among other things. They also include TEMPEST printers, TEMPEST video displays, TEMPEST video display systems, TEMPEST scanners, and other TEMPEST peripherals, such as TEMPEST external disk drives ( highly recommended when you are assembling TEMPEST systems ) TEMPEST keyboards, and special items lik TEMPEST KVM switches, TEMPEST secure voice switchwes , TEMPEST secure voice systems, and TEMPEST crypto interfaces. Because of the wide variety of TEMPEST products that can go to make up TEMPEST systems, so-called TEMPEST cabinets or other so-called TEMPEST enclosures must also be used. Strictly speaking, the terms " TEMPEST cabinets " and "TEMPEST enclosures " are actually misnomers. this is because cabinets and other enclosures, by themselves, do not process any information. However, electromagnetically shielded cabinets and other electromagnetically shielded enclosures are often needed to complete the assembly of TEMPEST secure systems.

When considering the design , manufacturing and long term support of TEMPEST computers, such as TEMPEST desktops, TEMPEST notebooks as well as the newer TEMPEST laptops and TEMPEST all-in-ones, besides traditional issues like security, safety, reliability, etc., the designer must now consider obsolescence. this factor is not as important with TEMPEST printers, TEMPEST scanners, TEMPEST video displays, TEMPEST video display systems, TEMPEST external disk drives and TEMPEST peripherals like TEMPEST keyboards, TEMPEST KVM switches, TEMPEST secure voice switches , TEMPEST secure voice systems, and TEMPEST crypto interfaces. The following are some of the specific problems that affect the above components of TEMPEST secure sytems:

TEMPEST desktops:

TEMPEST desktops have been traditionally regarded as easy to customize, repair and upgrade, but this is no longer always the case. More and more functions are being made part of the motherboard.

TEMPEST notebooks:

TEMPEST notebooks are small, light, and easily stashed in a safe. However, TEMPEST notebooks are harder to repair and customize, and TEMPEST notebooks are inherently more fragile than TEMPEST desktops. TEMPEST notebooks are more easily misplaced or stolen than TEMPEST desktops.

TEMPEST laptops:

TEMPEST laptops are a further step down the road to miniaturization from TEMPEST desktops and TEMPEST notebooks. TEMPEST laptops are still more easily misplaced or stolen than TEMPEST desktops and TEMPEST notebooks. TEMPEST laptops are even harder to repair and customize TEMPEST desktops and TEMPEST notebooks, and TEMPEST laptops are inherently more fragile than TEMPEST desktops and TEMPEST notebooks.

TEMPEST all-in-ones:

TEMPEST all-in-ones are the latest step down the road to miniaturization that started with TEMPEST desktops, went to TEMPEST notebooks to TEMPEST laptops Although TEMPEST all-in-ones are somewhat larger than TEMPEST laptops, TEMPEST all-in-ones have the advantage of having all the TEMPEST peripherals, including the TEMPEST keyboard and TEMPEST touchpad, contained in one single unit. TEMPEST all-in-ones are not as easily misplaced or stolen than TEMPEST laptos, but in our opinion the repair and upgrade of TEMPEST all-in-ones is more difficult than that of TEMPEST notebooks, TEMPEST laptops, and TEMPEST desktops.

TEMPEST printers:

TEMPEST printers Are a good example of the growing divergence between the needs of the commercial users and the needs of the TEMPEST industry. Many printers are now designed to connect wirelessly. This makes the design, repair and upgrade of TEMPEST printers more difficult. Unfortunately, this si a growing trend.

********TO BE CONTINUED**********

TEMPEST scanners,

TEMPEST monitors:

TEMPEST video displays:

TEMPEST video display systems:

TEMPEST external disk drives:

TEMPEST peripherals:

TEMPEST keyboards:

TEMPEST KVM switches,

TEMPEST secure voice switches:

TEMPEST secure voice systems:

TEMPEST crypto interfaces:

The investors.

If you invest in a company that builds a certain product, and that product turns out to have a TEMPEST security deficiency or an electromagnetic interference problem, you could lose money. If the product has to be recalled and modified, this could cause the company to have a bad quarter or a bad year. If the problem is serious enough, it could affect the firm's reputation, future sales, and even its survival.

The management.

If you are an officer or an executive with the firm that had an unexpected TEMPEST security or electromagnetic emissions or susceptibility problem, you could suddenly find your position or your career in jeopardy. The key word is "unexpected." No one plans to have a TEMPEST security or electromagnetic interference problem. Since these phenomena are also invisible, etc. they can catch even the most competent and responsible people by surprise.

The Engineers.

TEMPEST security and electromagnetic interference problems can present both a risk and an opportunity for a firm's TEMPEST security engineers. These risks are due to human nature, coupled with the fact that TEMPEST security problems and electromagnetic interference problems cannot be seen, heard, felt, etc. The risks are twofold:

Risk #1: Preventing a TEMPEST security or electromagnetic interference problem.

If an engineer identifies a potential TEMPEST security or electromagnetic compatibility problem early in the design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . phase, he or she runs the risk of being accused of adding to the size, weight, and cost of a product merely to address a problem that some would consider to be "imaginary."

Risk #2: NOT preventing a TEMPEST security problem or an electromagnetic interference problem.

If an engineer fails to prevent a TEMPEST security problem or an electromagnetic compatibility problem, he or she will be the first to be blamed for the losses that the company suffers. This may seem fair, but as we will see below, TEMPEST security problems and electromagnetic compatibility problems sometimes may not be the design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . engineer's fault at all.

The opportunity.

Making a big problem go away can really make a person shine in a big organization. An engineer that solves a serious TEMPEST security problem or electromagnetic interference problem quickly, effectively, and economically is a hero indeed. He or she may actually get more recognition than an outstanding designer that goes quietly along for many years preventing electromagnetic interference problems or TEMPEST security deficiencies in the first place. This may be unfair, but it often happens. It is human nature, and it comes from the fact that TEMPEST security phenomena and electromagnetic interference problems are invisible, unintentional, and unexpected.

The technicians.

Along with the engineers, technicians share the blame and the glory albeit to a lesser extent. It is hard to blame a technician for a faulty design, although it has been done. On the other hand, technicians rarely get the credit they deserve for eliminating, or helping to eliminate, a TEMPEST security deficiency or an electromagnetic interference problem.

The assemblers.

Even assemblers can sometimes be blamed for a TEMPEST security problem or an electromagnetic interference problem. This happens when the manufacturing department makes what appears to be a minor change in an engineer's design. The product may be attractive and appear to work well, yet still have a TEMPEST security or electromagnetic compatibility flaw. Even if they avoid blame, assemblers are usually the first to lose their jobs when a firm finds itself in financial trouble. Their risks are substantial. On the positive side, the assemblers are usually among the first to find new jobs, too.

The Customer.

US Department of Defense ( DoD ) or other Government buyers risk their careers if a product or service that they select is inadequate. The deficiency might not even have anything to do with TEMPEST security or with electromagnetic compatibility. In order to meet TEMPEST requirements or electromagnetic compatibility specifications, the product might turn out to be too large, too heavy, not rugged enough, or simply delivered too late. None of these failings will endear the buyer to his or her commanding officer or Department of Defense ( DoD )supervisor. The risk of having any of these deficiencies appear is increased because TEMPEST signals and electromagnetic compatibility problems (a) are unexpected, and (b) usually cannot be spotted by the buyer without special skills and instruments.

The end user.
For the end user, a faulty device can lead to a failed mission. This can spell the end of a career, or worse. While the same can be said of any problem that occurs with military or DoD equipment, TEMPEST security deficiencies and electromagnetic compatibility issues are different. For example, if a military vehicle has a bad transmission, the user can often spot the problem on a test drive. It takes an expert with special equipment to spot a TEMPEST security problem, or an electromagnetic compatibility problem.

Taking the Risk out of TEMPEST security tm. since 1985.

Since its inception, TEMPEST INC. has recognized the extra risks that are involved in building TEMPEST security products and in providing TEMPEST security engineering services. Our goal has been to eliminate these risks for our Department of Defense ( DoD ) and other customers as much as possible. We do this by using proprietary design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . and testing of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . techniques, and by educating our customers about the risks and related issues.

TEMPEST Products.

The term " TEMPEST Products " Is an unofficial term. To the best of TEMPEST INC.'s knowledge, there is no official U.S. Government document that defines the term " TEMPEST Products ". Nevertheless, the term TEMPEST Products has come to be sometimes used to refer to devices that claim to be free of TEMPEST problems or claim to comply with one or more TEMPEST security standards. Unfortunately, the fact that " TEMPEST Products " has no official definition has led to quite a bit of misunderstanding and errors.

For this reason we will try to clear up some of the misconceptions that arise from the use of the terms such as " TEMPEST products " , " TEMPEST Monitors " , " TEMPEST printers " , "TEMPEST computers " , " TEMPEST Fax " , " TEMPEST keyboards ", " TEMPEST scanners " , " TEMPEST ethernet " , "TEMPEST Video telecommunication systems " , " TEMPEST Secure systems " , and other " TEMPEST products " .

Please note: the information that we provide here regarding the term " TEMPEST Products " only pertains to the term "TEMPEST Products " as it is used < Copyright 2013 by TEMPEST INC. >in the United States. The term "TEMPEST Products " , or its translation may have different meanings in other countries. This only adds to the confusion regarding the term "TEMPEST Products " .

As popularly used, " TEMPEST Products " can include devices such as the following:

" TEMPEST monitors " : the term TEMPEST monitors is often used to refer to computer monitors that claim to have no known TEMPEST problems or claim to meet one or more TEMPEST security standards. However the term TEMPEST monitors is also used to refer to computer monitors that have been specially designed to that claim to meet certain requirements regarding the control of emissions that can produce electromagnetic interference. TEMPEST monitors can also be used to refer to computer monitors that claim to have been designed to have a low level of suceptibility to electromagnetc interference.


" TEMPEST computers " : the term TEMPEST computers is also often used to refer to computers that claim to meet one or more TEMPEST security standards or that claim to produce no TEMPEST signals. However the term TEMPEST computers is also used to refer to computers that claim to have been specially designed to reduce the electromagnetic emissions that can produce (Copyright 2013 by TEMPEST INC. ) electromagnetic interference (EMI). TEMPEST computers can also be used to refer to computers that have been designed to sustain electromagnetic interference without malfunctioning.


" TEMPEST scanners " : the term TEMPEST ethernet can be found to refer to ethernet that meet one or more TEMPEST security standards. Again, the term TEMPEST ethernet is also used to refer to ethernet that requirements regarding the control of their emissions and susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI).


" TEMPEST printers " : the term TEMPEST printers is often used to refer to printers that meet or claim to meet one or more TEMPEST security standards. However the term TEMPEST printers is also used to refer to computer printers that have been specially designed to meet certain requirements regarding the control of emissions that can produce electromagnetic interference. TEMPEST printers can also be used to refer to computer printers that have been designed to have a lowlevel of suceptibility to electromagnetc interference.


" TEMPEST Fax " : the term TEMPEST fax can be found referring to fax machines that meet one or more TEMPEST security standards. The term TEMPEST fax is rarely, (Copyright 2013 by TEMPEST INC. ) but sometmes, used to refer to fax machines with reduced emissions of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and/or reduced suceptibility to electromagnetc interference (EMI).


" TEMPEST ethernet " : the term TEMPEST ethernet can mean ethernet links that comply with certain TEMPEST security standards. However the term TEMPEST ethernet is hardly ever used (Copyright 2013 by TEMPEST INC. ) to refer to ethernet links that have been hardened against electromagnetic interference.


" TEMPEST copiers " : Copiers used to be traditionally immune to TEMPEST or electromagnetic interference problems, but now this is not always true any more. For this reason, the unofficial term TEMPEST copiers can be found referring to copiers that claim to be free of TEMPEST problems or claim to meet meet one or more TEMPEST security standards, or electromagnetic interference (EMI) requirements.

TEMPEST systems. Like the term " TEMPEST Products, " there is no official US government definition of TEMPEST Systems either. However, the term " TEMPEST systems " has popularly been used to refer to another class of TEMPEST Products. Instead of referring to individual TEMPEST Products, such as TEMPEST computers, TEMPEST monitors, TEMPEST keyboards, TEMPEST printers, aand other TEMPEST devices individually, TEMPEST systems refer to are entire sets of TEMPEST Products that individually and together meet or claim to meet some TEMPEST security standard.

Confusing types of TEMPEST products.

Some devices that are described as TEMPEST Products lead to confusion because, for technical reasons, there is some doubt about whether or not there exists any official TEMPEST standard that applies to them. Included in this category are TEMPEST trackballs and TEMPEST mice, and unfortunately, TEMPEST switches, which will be discussed below.

Unintentionally Confusing uses of the term " TEMPEST Products ":

TEMPEST racks: There is no official US government definition of what constitutes a TEMPEST rack. However, some electromagnetically shielded racks' in combination with other devices that also have come to be popularly called TEMPEST products, can sometimes be used to produce equipment with some TEMPEST security features.

TEMPEST cabinets: There is also no official US government definition of what constitutes a TEMPEST cabinet. Still, some electromagnetically shielded cabinets, also in combination with other devices that have come to be popularly called TEMPEST products, can be used to produce " TEMPEST products " i.e. equipment with adequate TEMPEST security features.

TEMPEST cables: Simlarly, the US government does not define of what constitutes a TEMPEST cable, although some (but not all) electromagneticaly shielded cables, in conjunction with other popularly called TEMPEST products, can be used to produce TEMPEST products: i.e. products with acceptable TEMPEST security features.

TEMPEST filters.

When can ordinary emc filters be considered TEMPEST products or parts of TEMPEST products?

Occasionally, ordinary electromagnetic interference filters can be used in a particular application, to produce TEMPEST products. When this happens, the filter manufacturers sometimes advertise these filters as being TEMPEST products themselves. This is perfectly legal and not intentionally misleading, because there is no official definition of the term TEMPEST products. Engineers who design TEMPEST products must design their tempest products with care, and beware of easy solutions..

TEMPEST connectors.

When designing tempest products, perhaps no other devices give rise to as much confusion as do connectors. Engineers who design TEMPEST products have wide varieties of connectors from which to select. This can be both a blessing and a curse. Besides their suitability for use in TEMPEST PRODUCTS , Designers of TEMPEST products must consider their source reliability, quality control, availability,

Are TEMPEST rooms considered TEMPEST PRODUCTS?

Electromagnetically shielded rooms are sometimes called "TEMPEST Rooms". These are not really TEMPEST products. TEMPEST cabinets, TEMPEST enclosures, TEMPEST cables, TEMPEST filters, TEMPEST connectors, TEMPEST rooms, TEMPEST attenuators, TEMPEST gaskets, TEMPEST shields, TEMPEST vents, TEMPEST inductors, TEMPEST resistors, TEMPEST capacitors, TEMPEST transformers, TEMPEST latches, and even TEMPEST pouches and TEMPEST tents.

TEMPEST Test techniques and TEMPEST security design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . Techniques.

TEMPEST Test techniques and TEMPEST security design of cybersecurity intelligence surveillance and reconnaisance ISR systems . Techniques are discussed in our TEMPEST education and TEMPEST security training courses, and they will not be dicussed here. Please note that while our TEMPEST security courses provide a lot of valuable TEMPEST security information, some of which is available nowhere else, they do not cover any of our proprietary techniques.

Our TEMPEST Courses: TEMPEST Training leads to TEMPEST security.

At TEMPEST INC. we have found that a well-informed client makes the best customer. and that robust, reliable TEMPEST security is best achieved by starting with TEMPEST courses that provide practical and effective TEMPEST training. For this reason TEMPEST INC. has always provided TEMPEST training courses to US citizens with:
1) U.S. Government verified security clearances and
2) the verified need to know the technical details of TEMPEST security.

Our TEMPEST training and our TEMPEST courses are available to anyone who is resposible for TEMPEST security and meets the above criteria. We believe that our interests are ultimately best served by having knowledgeable customers and skilled, knowledgeable people in both the government and the TEMPEST security industry, even among our competitors.

Why does TEMPEST INC. provide TEMPEST training and TEMPEST courses to its competitors?

Since 1985, TEMPEST INC. has provided effective, economical TEMPEST courses and other types of formal TEMPEST training and informal TEMPEST training , (including one-on-one TEMPEST training and hands on TEMPEST training ) to all members of the TEMPEST security industry. We believe that it is good business to help ensure that the United States maintains a high level of TEMPEST security. A credible, effective TEMPEST security program improves the business environment for all of us who participate in the TEMPEST security industry.

Technical TEMPEST training and non-technical TEMPEST training courses.

You don't have to be an engineer to be involved in the TEMPEST security industry. Some of our TEMPEST training courses are specifically designed for senior executives and other decision makers in business and industry who need to understand the nature of the TEMPEST security threat, and how to address it.

Technical TEMPEST training.

For over 28 years, TEMPEST INC. has helped many TEMPEST engineers and TEMPEST technicians pass the challenging and technically detailed examinations that are required to become a Certified TEMPEST Professional, level I or II. Many of these TEMPEST professionals have gone on to fill important positions in government and industry.

For more information, click on TEMPEST COURSES. here or in our navigation bar.


Our Fundamentals of TEMPEST Security Course provides Department of Defense ( DoD,) military, government and industry executives with practical, essential TEMPEST trainingh that is available nowhere else. "Fundamentals of TEMPEST Security" is only available to US citizens with verified security clearances and a verified need to know about TEMPEST security issues.


Our "TEMPEST Professionals' Certification Course" presents in a clear and easily understood form, the many details involved in preparing an adequate TEMPEST test plan and in properly performing a TEMPEST test. Although it is much more limited in scope, it is much more challenging than "Fundamentals of TEMPEST Security." It is also only available to US citizens with Department of Defense ( DoD ) verified security clearances and a verified need to know about TEMPEST security issues.


We occasionally hear from people who want to take both "Fundamentals of TEMPEST Security," and the "TEMPEST Professionals' Certification Course." We encourage this, but it is not for everyone. If you are serious about investing a good part of your future in the TEMPEST security industry, taking both courses may be right for you.

The TEMPEST Professionals' Certification Course will help you to get started in TEMPEST testing. It will help you excel in this job.

"Fundamentals of TEMPEST Security" will help you get promoted into management. Taking both courses will help to make you into the best and most valuable type of TEMPEST security manager: one who understands the business aspects and also possesses the practical knowledge that can only be gained by working in the laboratory. It is no exaggeration to say that an executive with this type of background can be literally worth his or her weight in gold. At current rates, this would be about two million dollars for a 200 lb. person. A medium sized firm can make that much from one, single, well-planned, well-led TEMPEST security project: one that concentrates on "Taking the risk out of TEMPEST security." tm.

This Mission Statement has been reviewed by US Department of Defense ( DoD )Certified Facility Security Officer and a Certified TEMPEST Professional, Level II. It contains no classified information and no unclassified National Security Information.

Copyright 2006, 2007, 2008 by TEMPEST INC. All Rights reserved.

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Terminology used in Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC)

If someone turns on a hair dryer while you are watching television, you may see some annoying lines running across your TV screen. This is because the hair dryer unintentionally acts as a radio transmitter, producing signals that confuse the television set. This is known as " Electromagnetic Interference " ( EMI ).

If an engineer were to re-design the hair dryer so that it no longer produced electromagnetic interference ( EMI ), the problem would be solved. The hair dryer and the television set would now be compatible. This is known as "Electromagnetic Compatibility" (EMC.)

EMI and EMC are used interchangeably to refer to the technology of preventing and eliminating electromagnetic interference.

Other names for this technology include "Radio Frequency Interference " (RFI) and "Radio Interference." Amateur radio operators call it " QRM " and " QRN ."

Two other useful terms are "Emissions" and "Susceptibility." The radio signals that the hair dryer produces are its "emissions." The extent to which the television set malfunctions in the presence of these signals is called its "Susceptibility."

Many EMC standards require tests for both the Emissions that a device produces,